Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 14–16 (“Certainly … sleep” )?
Some researchers contend that sleep plays no role in the consolidation of declarative memory (i.e., memory involving factual information). These researchers note that people with impairments in rapid eye movement (REM) continue to lead normal lives, and they argue that if sleep were crucial to memory, then these individuals would have apparent memory deficits. Yet the same researchers acknowledge that the cognitive capacities of these individuals have never been systematically examined, nor have they been the subject of studies of tasks on which performance reportedly depends on sleep. Even if such studies were done, they could only clarify our understanding of the role of REM sleep, not sleep in general. The researchers also claim that improvements of memory overnight can be explained by the mere passage of time, rather than attributed to sleep. But recent studies of memory performance after sleep – including one demonstrating that sleep stabilizes declarative memories from future interference caused by mental activity during wakefulness – make this claim unsustainable. Certainly there are memory-consolidation processes that occur across periods of wakefulness, some of which neither depend on nor are enhanced by sleep. But when sleep is compared with wakefulness and performance is better after sleep, then some benefit of sleep for memory must be acknowledged.It provides the reasoning behind a claim about the role of sleep in memory consolidation., It explains why a previous claim about sleep and memory is unsustainable., It demonstrates why wakefulness is central to the process of declarative memory consolidation., It emphasizes the limited role sleep plays in the process of declarative memory consolidation., It concedes that the consolidation of declarative memory does not depend entirely on one factor.
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